Contains kojic acid, 15% azelaic acid, extracts of yarrow, witch hazel, Vitamin C. Azelaic acid is naturally produced by the yeast Pityrosporum ovalis, responsible in humans for pityriasis versicolor, a skin disease characterized by the appearance of white patches due to depigmenting action of azelaic acid. The mechanism of action is based on the competitive inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Azelaic acid shows its best depigmenting action on pigmented solar and senile keratoses, but also in the therapy of melasma; it does not show a lightening action on normal skin, senile freckle or nevi in general. Azelaic acid is not photosensitizing and has good tolerability. Ascorbic acid and its derivatives do not directly inhibit tyrosinase, but act as reducing agents on the melanin intermediates, blocking the oxidative reactions of melanogenesis at various levels. It has three important properties: it has an inhibiting effect on melanogenesis, blocking the chain of oxidation reactions from tyrosine to melanin, it promotes the synthesis of collagen and finally it has halitic-free radical activity. Kojic acid is produced through biotechnological processes by the Aspergillus Oryzae mushroom by fermentation from olive oil, it essentially works as an inhibitor of Tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for the formation of melanin. Skin spots are caused by an irregular build-up of melanin; after childbirth or due to too intense exposure to the sun it may happen that the melanocytes are no longer able to suspend the production of melanin. The latter is formed from the amino acid tyrosine, by the action of an enzymatic chain based on the presence of copper ions, which transform light into energy. And it is at this point that kojic acid comes into play, a substance capable of capturing copper ions and therefore interrupting the enzymatic chain and the consequent production of melanin. At the subcutaneous level, it acts on fibroblasts, responsible for the production of elastin and collagen, resulting in an increase in skin tone and elasticity and also has excellent moisturizing power.